Are You Being Stalked? Learn Tips For Protection.
Being stalked is a life changing process. Stalking victims are in a state of constant fear 24 hours a day. The ongoing nature of stalking can cause traumatic
psychological damage to the victim.
According to 1994 statistics, one million people in the United States have been stalked. High-profile cases of celebrities being stalked have raised the public's
awareness to this crime. But the majority of stalking victims are ordinary people, mostly women, who are being pursued and threatened by someone with whom
they have had a prior relationship. Approximately 80% of stalking cases involve women stalked by ex- boyfriends and former husbands. Some stalking cases
involve ex- employees who are obsessed with the rejection of having lost a job.
Are there any laws against stalking?
California was the first state to pass an anti-stalking law in 1990 in response to the stalking and murder of actress Rebecca Schaeffer. Since then, all other states
have enacted anti-stalking laws.
In California, both criminal and civil laws address stalking. According to the criminal laws, a stalker is someone who willfully, maliciously and repeatedly follows
or harasses another (victim) and who makes a credible threat with the intent to place the victim or victim's immediate family in fear for their safety. The victim
does not have to prove that the stalker had the intent to carry out the threat. (California Penal Code 646.9)
The criminal penalty for stalking is imprisonment up to a year and/or a fine of up to $1,000. There are more severe penalties when the stalker pursues the same
person in violation of a court restraining order, with a sentencing range of two to four years imprisonment. Persons convicted of felony stalking also face stricter
penalties if they continue to stalk their victim(s). Courts may issue restraining orders to prohibit stalking. (California Family Code 6320)
A victim, family member or witness may request that the California Department of Corrections, county sheriff or the director of the local department of
corrections notify them by phone or mail 15 days before a convicted stalker is released from jail or prison. The victim, family member or witness must keep these
departments notified of their most current mailing address and telephone number. The information relating to persons who receive notice must be kept
confidential and not released to the convicted stalker. (California Penal Code 646.92) The court may order a person convicted of felony stalking to register
with local law enforcement officials within 14 days of moving to a city and/or county. (California Penal Code 646.9)
A victim of stalking may bring a civil lawsuit against the stalker and recover money damages. (See Civil Code 1708.7 for the elements and remedies of the tort
of stalking.) Victims may also request that the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) suppress their automobile registration and driver's license
records from being released to persons other than court and law enforcement officials, other governmental agencies or specified financial institutions, insurers and
attorneys. To have their records suppressed, the victim must submit verification such as police reports, court documentation or other documentation from a law
enforcement agency. The documentation must show that they have reasonable cause to believe they are a victim of stalking. Release of a suppressed record must
be authorized by the victim or the DMV. Records will be suppressed for one year. The time may be extended if the victim submits verification that he or she
continues to have reasonable cause to believe they are being stalked. (California Vehicle Code 1808.21, 1808.22)
As of January 1996, in accordance with the California Public Records Act, state and local law enforcement agencies cannot disclose specified information
regarding a victim of stalking, including the victim's address. If the victim is a minor, the parents or guardians may request to have the victim's name withheld.
(California Government Code 6254) When stalking occurs in the workplace, an employer can request a temporary restraining order or an injunction on behalf
of the employee who is a victim of stalking. (California Code of Civil Procedure 527.8)
Currently, there are few federal laws that deal directly with stalking.
- The Interstate Stalking Punishment and Prevention Act of 1996 punishes persons with a fine and/or imprisonment for crossing state lines "with the intent to
injure or harass another person...or place that person in reasonable fear of death or serious bodily injury..." (18 USC § 2261A, 2261, 2262).
- Two laws authorize grants for law enforcement agencies to develop programs addressing stalking and for states to improve the process for entering
stalking-related data into local, state and national crime information databases such as the National Crime Information Center. (42 USC §§ 3796gg, 14031)
- Another law requires a training program for judges to ensure that when they issue orders in stalking cases, they have all the available criminal history and
other information from state and federal sources. (42 USC § 14036)
- As of September 1996, the Attorney General must compile and report data regarding stalking as part of the National Incident-Based Reporting System. (42 USC § 14038)
- The National Center for Victims of Crime has additional information on federal and state laws at its web site.
Tips for Stalking Victims
These tips will help you guard your personal information and lessen the chance that it will get into the hands of a stalker or harasser. However, some of these tips
are extreme and should only be used if you are indeed being stalked. Harassment can take many forms, so this information may not be appropriate in every
situation and may not resolve serious stalking problems. (See also "Security Recommendations for Stalking Victims".)
1. Use a private post office box. Residential addresses of post office box holders are generally confidential. However, the U.S. Postal Service will release a
residential address to any government agency, or to persons serving court papers. The Post Office only requires verification from an attorney that a case is
pending. This information is easily counterfeited. Private companies, such as Mail Boxes Etc., are more strict and will require that the person making the request
have an original copy of a subpoena. Use your private post office box address for all of your correspondence. Print it on your checks instead of your residential
address. Instead of recording the address as "Box 123," use "Apartment 123."
2. File a change-of-address card with the U.S. Postal Service giving the private mail box address. Send personal letters to friends, relatives and businesses
giving them the new private mailbox address. Give true residential address only to the most trusted friends. Ask that they do not store this address in rolodexes
or address books which could be stolen.
3. Obtain an unpublished and unlisted phone number. The phone company lists names and numbers in directory assistance (411) and publishes them in the
phone book. Make sure you delete your information from both places. Don't print your phone number on your checks. Give out a work number when asked.
4. If your state has Caller ID, order Complete Blocking (called "Per Line" Blocking in other states). This ensures that your phone number is not disclosed
when you make calls from your home.
5. Avoid calling 800, 888 and 900 number services. Your phone number could be "captured" by a service called Automatic Number Identification. It will
also appear on the called party's bill at the end of the month. If you do call 800 numbers, use a pay phone.
6. Have your name removed from any "reverse directories." The entries in these directories are in numerical order by phone number or by address. These
books allow anyone who has just one piece of information, such as a phone number, to find where you live. Reverse direct-ories are published by phone
companies and direct marketers.
7. Let people know that information about you should be held in confidence. Tell your employer, co-workers, friends, family and neighbors of your
situation. Alert them to be suspicious of people inquiring about your whereabouts or schedule.
8. Do not use your home address when you subscribe to magazines. In general, don't use your residential address for anything that is mailed or shipped to
9. Avoid using your middle initial. Middle initials are often used to differentiate people with common names. For example, someone searching public records
or credit report files might find several people with the name, Jane Doe. If you have a common name and want to blend in with the crowd, don't add a middle
10. When conducting business with a government agency, only fill in the required pieces of information. Certain government agency records are public
record. Anyone can access the information you disclose to the agency within that record. Public records such as county assessor, county recorder, DMV and
business licenses are especially valuable finding tools. Ask the agency if it allows address information to be confidential in certain situations. If possible,
use a post office box and do not provide your middle initial, phone number or your Social Security number. If you own property or a car, you may want to
consider alternative forms of ownership, such as a trust. This would shield your personal address from the public record.
11. Put your post office box on your driver's license. Don't show your license to just anyone. Your license has a lot of valuable information to a stalker.
12. Don't put your name on the list of tenants on the front of your apartment building. Use a variation of your name that only your friends and family would
13. Be very protective of your Social Security number. It is the key to much of your personal information. Don't pre-print the SSN on anything such as your
checks. Only give it out if required to do so and ask why the requester needs it. The Social Security Administration may be willing to change your SSN. Contact
the SSA for details.
14. Alert the three credit bureaus--Experian, Equifax and Trans Union--to your situation. Ask them to "flag" your record to avoid fraudulent access.
15. If you are having a problem with harassing phone calls, put a beep tone on your line so callers think you are taping your calls. Use an answering machine
to screen your calls, and put a "bluff message" on your machine to warn callers of possible taping or monitoring. Be aware of the legal restrictions on taping of
16. If you use electronic mail and other online computer services, change your e-mail address if necessary. Do not enter any personal information into
17. Keep a log of every stalking incident, plus names, dates and times of your contacts with law enforcement and others. Save phone message tapes and items
sent in the mail.
18. Consider getting professional counseling and/or seeking help from a victims support group. They can help you deal with fear, anxiety and depression
associated with being stalked.
19. Make a police report. Consider getting a restraining order if you have been physically threatened or feel that you are in danger. When filed with the
court, a restraining order legally compels the harasser to stay away from you, or he/she can be arrested. Be aware that papers filed for a restraining order or
police report may become public record. Put minimal amounts of information and only provide a post office box address. You should contact an attorney or legal
aid office if a restraining order becomes necessary. (Note: Some security experts warn that restraining orders sometimes lead to violence. Before obtaining a
restraining order, consider your options carefully.)
20. And these final tips from someone who was stalked for over three years: For your own protection, carry pepper spray. Get a car phone and/or a beeper.
Carry a Polaroid or video camera. Never verify anything, like your home address, over the phone.
For More Information
The National Center for Victims of Crime
(Obtain a guide for stalking victims)
2111 Wilson Blvd.
Ste. 300, Arlington, VA 22201
Phone: (800) FYI-CALL or (703) 276-2880
National Domestic Violence Hotline
(NDVH helps victims find safe houses.)
(800) 799-SAFE, (512) 453-8117
View our Internet Resources
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Copyright © 1994 - 2001 Utility Consumers' Action Network. Reprinted with permission from Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. The above information is presented for educational purposes only, and it is not a substitute for legal advice.